Other positions affiliated with the galleons were: Constables were tasked with maintaining order on the ships. But in the majority of cases, he writes, “this charge was more or less honorific, and the onboard activity of the captain consisted in nothing more that directing the defense of the ship in case of enemy attack.” He says that the general of the fleet could honor a distinguished gentleman by naming him as captain. Moreover, there was a code by which each galleon could communicate to others a change of course, a maneuver or an incident.Every galleon kept sailing during night time and only crewmembers on watch would remain active. For example, two galleons, the Santisima Trinidad (in 1754 and 1755) and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario (1749) had crews of over 384, as presented in the table which you can access by clicking the link below. Peterson, Andrew. A sort of bread or biscuit called “bizcocho” (pound cake), which was twice-baked and prepared with thick flour constituted the base of the diet, and it was often eaten wet or in a state of putrefaction. It took three years to research the main historical and maritime archives in Spain and compile all necessary information about galleons’ shapes, details and measures so that this replica could be built. In the fore part of this deck are the docking-manoeuvring area and the orlop-deck with 30 bunk beds for the crew; the aft area holds the rudder machinery and another docking-manoeuvring area.HOLDUnder the gun deck is the hold, an area which was used in the past to stow all loads and goods for the sailing. The ships pages also kept track of time by turning the sand clock every half hour and reciting psalms or litanies that were answered in chorus by the crew. The boatswain was responsible for ensuring the cargo was stowed well and maintained throughout the voyage, maintaining all mechanisms of the ship and ordering repairs. They were good for fighting in relatively still waters but lacke… Less than a third of the crew was Spanish and they usually held key positions onboard the galleon. All ship characteristics are also similar between these variants. Also, how many cannon would one carry, and how many crew would be considered standard? The youngest of the crew were the pages or ship’s boys. Also, because finding skilled Spanish seamen became a problem, some of the ships officers were foreigners. These crafts were used to load and unload the ship, to tow the ship when needed and to go in front of the ship to take soundings to avoid shallow water. Since her launching, a crew between 15 to 35 people have manned her across the seas and oceans around the world. Mateo, Jose E.B. The Phoenicians were apparently the first to introduce the bireme (about 700 bc), which had two banks of oars staggered on either side For example, two galleons, the Santisima Trinidad (in 1754 and 1755) and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario(1749) had crews of over 384, as presented in the table which you can access by clicking the link below. For players wanting to do battle on the high seas with a small group this ship is a fantastic choice. It was a large ship with an average capacity of 500 tons, and had a great speed for its size. The main deck stretches from bow to stern and contains the helm and cannons. The captain was the supreme commander in this case. The galleons that passed through the Marianas carried scores of crew members in addition to soldiers and colonial or mission helpers on their way to the Marianas and the Philippines. Officers and seamen would take care of the sails and rigging, obeying all instructions given by the captain and main officers such as cleaning up the decks, preparing oakum, checking sails or pumping out bilge water. The crew of a Spanish galleon with thirty guns might number 180 men. They were also charged with night watches, and when the night was over, to chant “Buenos Dias” in the morning. Spain’s Men of the Sea: Daily Life on the Indies Fleet in the Sixteenth Century. Schurz, William Lytle. Because the deportees, prisoners and undesirables could come from South and Central America, Europe and Asia, the makeup of the crew was very diverse. Izquierdo was sentenced to serve on the Royal Manila Galleons for a period of ten years. In addition to these duties, the pages took orders from all of the sailors and apprentices on the ship. Most were entered into service at the age of eight, although boys as young as seven were known to be pressed into service. The caulker was tasked with filling the juncture of the hull planking and deck with oakum and tar. Due to their smaller size, Sloops are easier to repair than the larger Galleons. A high, square forecastle rose behind Francisco Leandro de Viana wrote in 1765 about the native seaman serving on the Manila galleons: “There is not an Indian in these islands who has not a remarkable inclination for the sea; nor is there at present in all the world a people more agile in maneuvers on shipboard, or who learn so quickly nautical terms and whatever a good mariner ought to know. The expenses involved in galleon construction were enormous. Galleons were intended to discover and then establish trade routes between Spain, America and the Philippines islands, and formed what was then called the “Fleet of the Indies”. The so-called “captain” would travel as a passenger with no specific duties. A huge lamp outstands in this deck. Most galleons have three masts, two square rigged with a lateen sail on the stern-most mast. The master was in charge of the financial and administrative aspects of the voyage. There were three night watches divided in turns of four hours each: the first one or “guardia de prima”, that finished at midnight, the “guardia de modorra” (literally, drowsiness), that covered the coldest and most ungodly hours and finally the “guardia del alba” or dawn watch.Today, three bell rings announce lunch or dinner time, two bell rings mark a shift change, and a number of various chimes is used to announce emergencies. The majority would have died from starvation, disease and scurvy. According to Pablo E. Perez-Mallaina in Spain’s Men of the Sea, the captain’s sole duty was to defend the ship from enemy attack. Spanish officials in Manila found it increasingly difficult to find men to crew their ships, especially for the long and arduous return voyage to Acapulco. … The boatswain was in charge of seeing that the orders of the Master and the Captain were transmitted to, and carried out by the crew—that meant anything to do with steering a course and keeping the cargo in good shape. This unstable employment led many to seek outside sources of income. Many times individuals were sentenced to serve as crew on royal ships. Although all galleons belonging to the Fleet of the Indies would sail together forming groups of 30 ships or more and were escorted by war ships to protect them, they had these cast iron cannons for their own protection, and in case of need they were shot by the soldiers aboard. There is hardly an Indian who has sailed the seas who does not understand the mariner’s compass, and therefore on this [Acapulco] trade-route there are some very skilful and dexterous helmsmen.”. Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903-1909. He would receive rations but no pay. The name derived from “galley,” which had come to be synonymous with “war vessel” and whose characteristic beaked prow the new ship retained. Galleons are large, the most difficult to sink, armed with more Cannons, Sails and Cannonball storage, but are more difficult to maneuver than any other ship and require several crew members to be constantly working together. A one- or two-pirate crew means you’ll be sailing aboard a sloop, while a crew … A more accurate sloop would be the length of the galleon and could be sailed by 8-15 but would need a crew of 30 or more to effectively fight her. They handled the rigging and ropes during maneuvers and attended to the sounding line that determined the water’s depth. However, as they sailed back from America or the Pacific Ocean, they were mainly loaded with precious metals, such as gold and silver, pearls, precious stones and other highly appreciated American and Asian goods.Only a small part of this area was preserved to load the crew’s food rations. Each gun would need 4-6 people and a ship of her length would have 7 per side. : Indio Contributions to the Acapulco-Manila Galleon Trade.” Explorations: a graduate student journal of Southeast Asian studies. FORECASTLEThis area is a working deck which hosts the Fore mast, a maneuvering capstan, the bell and two cast iron, wooden stocked anchors that weigh 2,200 pounds each.The bell was used for communication purposes between galleons of the same fleet during foggy days and also to mark daily work shifts. His job was to see to it that the ship had all the necessary resources, licensing and permits to carry out its mission. They also made use of lateen-rigged sails. The carpenter, caulker and diver made up the repair team of the ship. The flotas would shun contact with other ships and would invariable run rather than fight. He was also in charge of directing the crew during maneuvers on board the ship. Quebec: Lévesque Publications, 2002. When galleons left Spain, they carried products such as wheat, oil, wine, cloth, weapons, paper, china, glass, medicines, tools and other European stuff. The cooper repaired containers, especially the barrels that carried water, wine and other provisions. And they had to share the room with livestock such as horses, hens, lambs and even cows!All goods were loaded to the hold through the main grille which can be seen in the middle of this deck. The carpenter and caulker were responsible for the maintenance of the hull. They set the course for the ship by watching the trim of the sails and the compass while implementing the orders of the pilot. The replica has been designed and built by Ignacio Fernandez Vial, a naval engineer and historian, commissioned by ship owner, the Nao Victoria Foundation.During construction, a completely original and innovative technique was used: the hull and decks were built up in layers of fibreglass and after that the whole structure was lined with wood. With so many people (and animals, kept for fresh meat, milk and eggs) crowded together in a small space, conditions on board a galleon could become extremely unpleasant—noisy, filthy and smelly. They carried plenty of seamen, merchant traders and settlers, while their holds bore the fabulous loads resulting from American and Asian trade. The General was the supreme commander of the fleet. March – August. The poop deck was raised high and a crew … The pilot was responsible for the navigation of the ship, ensuring that the vessel safely reached its destination. The treasure ships as a rule, would move in convoy or flotas typically with the strongest ships hauling the most treasure. Minnesota, Duluth, Tall Ships Festival 2016, El Galion, a Spanish Galleon Replica, sailing under Engine power. Galleon is the largest of the buildable Ships in ATLAS. One such case was Fernando Antonio Izquierdo, who in 1754 was found guilty of murdering Cayetano Méxica, a Mexican surgeon serving in Anigua, Guam. He needed to ensure that all the material and human resources required to reach its destination were obtained and that the passengers and cargo were delivered in good condition. Galleons were constructed from oak (for the keel), pine (for the masts) and various hardwoods for hull and decking. Driver, Marjorie G. The Spanish Governor of the Mariana Islands and the Saga of the Palacio. Despite the disadvantages of the ships, pirates were attracted to the galleons' large cargo capacity and the ability to outfit them as warships. 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