Svensson, L. (1992). The underside is creamy with rufous flanks and belly. Some females also show rather browner tones to the ear coverts and lores, and occasionally some vermiculations on the underparts. In Kazhakstan, I must have been a really lucky birder to find hybrid pairs containing Brown and Isabelline Shrikes in close proximity to each other, and both of these paired with Red-backed!". It would be most interesting to learn if such individuals are frequently observed in other parts of the range, and if so, where in significant concentrations. in May 2000 and 2001), with rather larger numbers found northward (e.g. Allowing for the great variability in both Isabelline and Brown Shrike, reference to Svensson (1992), Svensson et al (1999), and Worfolk (2000) suggest that the vast majority of adults should still be safely separable on the basis of the following main criteria: Three out of four subspecies of Brown Shrike show reddish or reddish-brown upperparts and strongly yellow-buff ventrally and on the flanks, while all subspecies of Isabelline Shrike except phoenicuroides show sandier or grayer tones to the upperparts. This bird has significant barring of the breast sides and flanks supporting a first year bird. Stockholm. A very few individuals (less than 1%, and these perhaps intergrades) show some white at the base of the primaries. The Brown Shrike, of the subspecies lucionensis, was considered by Tomek (2002) to be a "common breeding species throughout" DPRK (though she notes that Fiebig suggested that the coloring of all birds he saw was typical of confusus). Supercilium Superciliosus breeds only in Sakhalin and Hokkaido, south to central Honshu (Japan) and lucionensis breeds throughout most of eastern China, from Hebei and Shanxi south to Guangdong and west to Sichuan, as well as in southern Japan and the Korean peninsula. While highly distinctive in "typical" plumages at the extreme ends of each subspecies (i.e. More importantly - 1st year shrikes of both Brown and Red-backed have distinct pale fringes to the tertials (and greater coverts) and adults (second years?) Confident identification of some individuals is even further complicated by hybridization between Isabelline and both Red-backed L. collurio and Brown Shrike in Central Asia at least (e.g. Many adult Isabelline, especially in the eastern part of the range, tend to show paler lores, contrasting with darker ear coverts (with arenarius females also showing very poorly marked ear coverts too), whereas most Brown Shrike, male and female, have dark lores. Females appear rather similar to males, though perhaps look a little colder-brown, and some seem to show rather more brown admixed into the crown (though this could also perhaps reflect intergradation with other subspecies: if so more than 50% of all later-migrating lucionensis in spring in South Korea show some such intergradation). A very few adults (perhaps less than 1%) are distinctly brighter and cleaner-looking, redder above, and show a very strong black face-mask, an obvious supercilium, and a broad white forehead. Wolvden is property of Lioden Ltd © 2012-2020. "Typical" Brown Shrike adults in spring range in appearance from brown-backed (lucionensis) through reddish-brown backed (cristatus and presumably confusus) to reddish (superciliosus); grey-crowned (lucionensis) to reddish crowned (superciliosus); with broad, white supercilium (superciliosus) to almost no supercilium (lucionensis); with whitish underparts (superciliosus) to saturated orange and buff below (cristatus and probably confusus). Go to Red-backed Shrike for details). Superciliosus is, by contrast, the scarcest of the four forms, with a very few records of single birds, mostly in May in the far southwest. Based on the description in Robson (2000) many of these are likely ascribable to confusus, while others are probably within the range of nominate cristatus (differences between the two are not well-described in available literature. 1) Individuals with white patches at the base of the primaries. The disputed type confusus occurs in the south-eastern part of this range (in the Amur and Ussuri basins) and is the type recorded breeding in Heilongjiang and far north-eastern Inner Mongolia, China (also possibly in North Korea: Fiebig per Tomek, 2002). Roadrunner 2/2003: 22-28. All adults show all-dark bills (though sometimes with a faintly blue-grey or paler base), while the tails of many (but not all) individuals appear very slightly graduated, with slightly longer central than outer tail feathers. Incubation is probably mostly or entirely by female, about 15-17 days. Many such individuals cannot yet be safely ascribed to subspecies; and more surprisingly it appears that a very much smaller number perhaps cannot even safely be ascribed to species in field conditions. Clutch size varies, often 4-7 eggs, up to 9 in Alaska. Their frequency suggests strongly that they are not all vagrant Isabelline. The supercilium is often rather poorly marked and suffused with grey, though sometimes it can be more prominent and whitish. 27th September 2018, Location: Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia Especially considering the existence of hybrids, and the tendency to vagrancy shown by both Brown and Isabelline Shrike, it seems therefore that all extralimital Brown or Isabelline Shrikes, whether considered "typical" or "atypical", need to be identified on the basis of a broad range of characters, preferably supported by in-hand measurements. The tail tends not to be strongly contrasting in Brown Shrike (often similar in coloration or darker than the rest of the upperparts), whereas it tends to be contrastingly and often distinctively orange-toned in most individuals of Isabelline Shrike. In the park I stopped at a parking area at elev. At the gate, I found Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa latirostris latirostris and Oriental Magpie-Robin Copsychus saularis prosthopellus. This includes lucionensis types with much brown admixed into the crown (considered by Worfolk [2000] to be better described as the intergrade confusus). only rarely do. Such beautiful yellows and oranges. 45 (1): 1-235. However, several of these latter features apparently can also be shown by Isabelline to a varying degree and not be shown by Brown (!). Tail is long and round-tipped with faint bars. In addition, hybridisation between the various subspecies is not well-studied, but it seems, based on the extreme variability of many individuals seen in South Korea and elsewhere, that it might well be rather extensive. Near the entrance to the preserve (at an elev. Taxonomy: Polytypic. All subspecies tend to show orangey rumps and uppertail (leading to the alternate name of Rufous-tailed Shrike), which used in combination with other features (many of which are described below) makes separation of most individual Isabelline Shrike from Brown Shrike straightforward. Bill is short, heavy, and hooked. Brown Dove — Represents a subconscious thought that is less than clear. Like Brown, Isabelline Shrike is also considered variably as three full species using the phylogenetic species concept (e.g. The note concludes that significant further research needs to be conducted before identification criteria (or even taxonomic decisions) can be fully determined for the Brown Shrike taxa, and by extension Isabelline Shrike taxa, and that extreme caution needs to be used when identifying "atypical" extralimital shrikes of either species. The long-tailed shrike or rufous-backed shrike (Lanius schach) is a member of the bird family Laniidae, the shrikes.They are found widely distributed across Asia and there are variations in plumage across the range. adults in winter (e.g. Occasional individuals seen in Korea that appear to show mixed characteristics of superciliosus and perhaps confusus or lucionensis (i.e. Gibson, D. (1981). Worfolk 2000, Svensson 2003). of about 125 m or 410 ft.), I photographed a female Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus. Give attention to being clearer about what is needed. This online note has benefited hugely from the input of Bjorn Johansson, who not only kindly provided images, sections of relevant papers and extensive personal comment, but also translated some of Lars Svensson’s recent writings from Swedish into English. Reference: Young: Both parents feed nestlings. This shrike is mainly brown on the upper parts and the tail is rounded. Identification Guide to European Passerines, 4th Edition. The ear coverts are black in most adults. Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia The majority of non-lucionensis Brown Shrike in South Korea have reddish-brown backs/mantles, rufous-brown crowns, and warm-tinged brown tails. Brown Shrike is mainly found in Asia. Eggs pale gray or greenish white, spotted with brown, olive, and gray. Female has dark-brown mask. their already dark lores, and largely uniform reddish-brown upperparts (lacking any grey tones on the nape or mantle, and e.g. 800 pp. The male Isabelline Shrike has brown to rufous crown-brown; rufous, rump, tail; black mask; whitish to cream undrparts. Most of the underparts are typically saturated with warm yellow-buff, tinged more strongly apricot on the flanks. "sandy-backed" individuals of unclear provenance (perhaps also largely attributable to confusus?). All taxa are considered to be somewhat variable in appearance, with apparently numerous intergrades and some hybridisation. It's conceivable that the odd female or juvenile does get quite dark, like the Scillies bird last year, which had a typical Red-backed Shrike wing-formula (see here - you'll need to login to surfbirds though - browner than ours though). As Svensson (1992) notes, however, not all Isabelline Shrike show an orange tinge to the tail, while some Red-backed Shrike show rufous tones, and a significant percentage of Brown Shrike also do. Somewhere between awareness and ignorance, leaning to the side of being unaware. The greatest concentrations of Brown Shrike, of all three or four subspecies, are therefore of migrants on offshore islands from late April to early June and again, in rather smaller numbers, in August and September, with occasional individuals into October. The Brown Shrike is a highly variable species. Many birds considered to be adult female do not show strong underpart barring, while second calendar year birds can perhaps be aged by a combination of stronger vermiculations on the breast sides and flanks, and poorly-marked lores. on Socheong Island in the far northwest, peak counts in spring and autumn 2004 were 75 on May 17th, and 55 on August 19th). Upperpart coloration of Isabelline Shrike varies from pale grey-brown (isabellinus) to reddish (phoenicuroides); underpart coloration from whitish (phoenicuroides) to richly saturated buff (isabellinus); while two subspecies tend to show obvious white patches at the base of the primaries (especially adult male isabellinus and phoenicuroides), while a third (arenarius) does not. This subspecies, like lucionensis, appears clearly different in the field from all subspecies of Isabelline. All rights reserved. In addition there is suggestion of hybridisation between the various subspecies. The Bill (in Swedish, translated by Bjorn Johansson). 3. For a series of fascinating images and the full text of what Jochen REALLY wrote go to Hybrid Shrikes in Central Asia. However in this bird it is clearly outlined from the base of the beak to the back of the eye. Worfolk, T. (2000). Adult lucionensis is the most distinctive and arguably the most attractive-looking of the subspecies of Brown Shrike occurring in South Korea, appearing rather distinct from Isabelline Shrike. First 3 images pf a female Flame Minivet seen at the outskirts of Sinharaja forest. 2. It was male, and there … Some seem to show a rather weak supercilium, while others perhaps tend to appear closer to superciliosus, with extensive white in the supercilium, extending to the forehead. 1/9. As I... “This female Asian Paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi) surprised me by coming alongside me at a stream... “On 23rd Aug 15, a young friend named Caleb, stopped me and pointed... Save my name, e-mail, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Incubation is by female, about 16-17 days. “Unfortunately, like any good predator, it did not turn its back to m e, so images of the wings, tail or back. Females have a pale brown mask and scalloped underparts. The Brown Shrike: Taxonomy and Distribution. For a birder who is just starting out, the colour of the bird will probably be the first piece of information that … Presumably second calendar-year birds, such individuals if found out of their expected range would seem to pose a great identification challenge. At first we only noted one bird, a female Brown Shrike (Lanius cristatus) feeding close to the fence. Many also show fairly apparent growth bars and also slightly paler buffy-tips to at least the 5th and 6th pairs of tail feathers (as described by Svensson, 1992). This seems to include hybridization at least between superciliosus and lucionensis, and between lucionensis and cristatus (and/or confusus). It was prompted by noting differences between Brown Shrike seen in the field and descriptions of the species contained in available literature, and by subsequent discussion over the possible difficulty of some individual’s separation from Isabelline Shrike L. isabellinus (with lesser attention given to Red-backed Shrike L. collurio, a species first recorded in South Korea in September 2004. Svensson, L. & P. Grant. The remainder are comprised largely of either cristatus or confusus, "reddish-brown backed" types. “There is much variation to Brown Shrikes (Lanius cristatus) that’s makes sexing, age and sub-species identification a challenge at times, especially for adult females and first year birds. The wings are brown and lack any white "mirror" patches. After a while, a second bird turned up. That such characters can be shown by Brown Shrike seems inadequately referred to in much of the available literature, and as such could well lead to misidentification of some extralimital birds. However some females are noted to have pale lores (see: LINK). This note agrees that more research is required, and basing an opinion on the difficulties of identifying many individuals to subspecies in the field, follows the more conservative Svensson (1992) and Robson (2000) in treating Brown Shrike as a single species, with four subspecies (the clearly diagnosable nominate cristatus, lucionensis, superciliosus and the somewhat enigmatic and poorly-described confusus). Females tend to have fine scalloping on the underside and the mask is dark brown and not as well marked as in the male. The northernmost wintering limit is southern China and southernmost Japan, and the species becomes widespread in the boreal winter throughout much of South-east Asia. A perhaps lesser number (including one "sandy-backed" type in 2004), show rather weaker vestigial type patches. Both sexes (especially in spring) appear obviously dark and cold-toned brown in the upperparts, with strikingly clean pale fringes to the tertials (often more marked on the outer edge), and a more warmly-colored rump and base to the tail (often darkening distally). Adult nominate cristatus and confusus apparently differ most in the amount of rufous on upperparts, prominence of white supercilium and on average, bill size (Svensson, 1992). Despite its small stature, the behaviors of a shrike reflect those of a raptor. ... Brown Shrike-8. Most "sandy-backed" individuals show a rather warmer rufous suffusion to the crown; rather warm, even orangey tones to a square-ended tail (with or without weak growth bars); very striking pale edges to the tertials; typically rather brownish, rather than blackish remiges on the closed wing; a strong black "face-mask" and dark lores, with dark extending to the base of the bill; a dark bill; and buffish underparts, rather paler than in most "reddish-backed" individuals. The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsular. The leg-feathering was not brown but more buff. HABITAT: The Brown Shrike breeds at woodland edges (deciduous, mixed or coniferous), and in bushy areas, thickets, groves and secondary growths in open country. A Field Guide To the Birds of South-East Asia. Passeriformes. Wells, D.R., 2007. Warm-crowned and brown-backed, this individual showed perhaps the most extensive and coarse vermiculations on the underparts of any of the Brown Shrike seen on Baekryeong Island this spring. Svensson (1992) notes, however that "some females [subspecies ’isabellinus’] have rather dull dark brown tails with practically no rufous tinge at all". Grayish white to pale buff, with spots of brown and gray often concentrated at large end. Male has an ash-gray head, an inky black mask, white underparts, and scaly chestnut wings. 83: 65-77. Due to this discrepancy, the variability of appearance, and the lack of in-the-hand data, this note lumps individuals seen into three sub-groups for convenience of description (and NOT as a reflection of taxonomic or geographic considerations): "brown-backed" (lucionensis or close to lucionensis), "reddish-backed" superciliosus, presumably some confusus, and many cristatus. Young leave the nest about 19-20 days after hatching, are tended by parents for several more weeks. Lucionensis comprise probably 30-50% of all Brown Shrike during early May, with the vast majority (90%) comprised of this taxon by late May/early June. Condor 1981. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The remainder of reddish-backed individuals are more difficult to ascribe to subspecies, and show great variation. This shrike is mainly brown on the upper parts and the tail is rounded. It is presumably individuals such as these (in addition to some phoenicuroides Isabelline Shrike especially) that led Svensson (1992) to conclude that Brown Shrike is "very similar to L. isabellinus". Image by: 1) Imran_Shah - Pakistan 2) SJ Ahanmi - United Arab Emirates 3) Pkspks - India 4) Ali Al-Mohannadi In trying to allow for this it may be possible that this bird is a female phoenicuroides, with earth-brown upper-parts, a (for a female) fairly prominent supercilium and white under-parts. Based on a series of images (taken in May and September 2003 and especially in May 2004), this note. Although this bird looks more mature than a first year (juvenile) bird but it has insufficient criteria for an adult female.”, Dato’ Dr Amar-Singh HSS Nial Moores Although most Brown Shrike females are dark-lored, very occasional individuals show largely pale 330 x 286px 79.59KB Females have some variable amounts of vermiculations on the underparts. Most also appear to show between 5 and 6 primaries beyond the longest tertial on the closed wing, similar to the vast majority of individuals of other Brown Shrike subspecies - despite being considered mostly a medium-range migrant by Worfolk (2000). While very similar to "reddish-backed" subspecies in structure and behaviour, most lucionensis nonetheless seem rather more approachable and prone to perching in the open, and in addition most appear to show a rather square-cut tail, seeming to lack the slight gradation shown by many, but not all, "reddish-backed" birds. Although unrecorded on the Korean peninsula, Isabelline Shrike has been recorded further east in Japan (in Okinawa Prefecture, on February 17th 2003: per Akiyo Nakamichi in lit., 2004), highlighting the possibility of vagrancy. The female is paler than male with blackish-brown wash and less distinct supercilium. Click here to visit this species' account and breeding-season distribution map in Sound to Sage , Seattle Audubon's on-line breeding bird atlas of Island, King, Kitsap, and Kittitas Counties. No Brown Shrike of any subspecies, sex or age it is said (though see below) should show extensive white at the base of the primaries (to quote from Svensson [1992]: "bases to primaries only very rarely with some white [only 0-2 mm longer than the primary coverts if any]". In autumn, many individuals seen on offshore islands are juveniles and first winters ("first years"). Male feeds female during incubation (sometimes bringing her food he has stored on thorns earlier). Paper jigsaw puzzle at 1:1 scale (paper size 413x313 mm), to be cut out, glued together and assembled to form a bird. Female has brown upperparts; rufou-brown upper-tail. Brown Shrike. Males of both subspecies lack vermiculations (according to Svensson, 1992), while females tend to show variable but weak brown vermiculations or barring especially on the flank and breast sides, and juveniles extensive vermiculations below and above. This first note focuses on Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus. the majority, based on Worfolk’s descriptions) appear, in Korea at least, to be intermediate in appearance. Despite this extreme variability, Brown Shrike can easily be separated from the widespread Bull-headed Shrike L. bucephalus on account of structural differences including Brown’s longer, fuller tail and heavier bill, by the blackness of the lores and ear coverts and the lack of grey tones in much of the upperparts (with the exception of the crown in lucionensis), and in many individuals by the presence of a rather well-marked supercilium. Superciliosus can further be differentiated by its cleaner underparts, with most of the buff wash on the underparts confined to the flanks, and its slightly longer bill. How does the bird appear… Upper plumage and wings are mainly brown. Face is white with black mask; throat is white. adult male superciliosus, lucionensis and cristatus), there appear to be no consistent structural or biometric differences easily discernible in the field and a very significant percentage of individuals (i.e. There seems to be a limited understanding of most non-adult male plumages, with several discrepancies noted between females and immatures seen in the field and descriptions contained within oft-cited literature. reddish cap, broad white forehead, brown back and mantle) suggest that hybridisation between superciliosus and other subspecies is perhaps more widespread than presently thought. The bills of adults are usually black or blackish. Found in lowland forests, edges, and parks. 1. HarperCollins Publishers. The committee agreed by consensus that this bird was a female brown shrike, although they are still investigating hybrid possibilities. Range and Habitat The distinction is not easy to use in the field but has been tested with breeding birds in Japan where the female can be identified from the presence … Learn how your comment data is processed. Until much more detailed research has been conducted, it seems inappropriate therefore to consider the various taxa of Brown Shrike as full species. The majority of juveniles are safely separable from the vast majority of Red-backed and Isabelline Shrikes on the basis of e.g. Young A large tit flock near the pool contained only a female Blackcap and a few Goldcrests of note. Many adult Isabelline (with the exception of "western" phoenicuroides) show obviously paler bills basally than Brown Shrike. Habitat: Wild Urban Garden. One such individual in early June also showed a largely pinky-grey base to the bill. '' individuals of unclear provenance ( perhaps also largely attributable to confusus? ) type... 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2020 brown shrike female