Some of the different types of anxiety disorders that are characterized by fear include: Repeated exposure to similar situations leads to familiarity, which can dramatically reduce both the fear response. Whenever such pain has been experienced, the amygdala stores memories of the related sensory signals. A phobia is an extreme fear of a particular animal, thing, place or situation. A lot of people think that fear is the only cause of anxiety or a phobia and they think that phobia is a kind of fear only. Fear alerts us to the presence of danger or the threat of harm, whether that danger is physical or psychological. Updated April 11, 2019. Fear is a human emotion that is triggered by a perceived threat. Fear prepares us to react to danger. 2. Focusing on your own positive qualities, including your courage in the face of danger, trauma, or hardship. Like most health conditions, PTSD is not a one-size-fits-all disorder.   Some fears may be a result of experiences or trauma, while others may represent a fear of something else entirely, such as a loss of control. The physical reactions (symptoms) a person experiences when faced with the object of their fear are real and aren't simply "in their head". No one takes joy in this emotion. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. Some people are adrenaline seekers, thriving on extreme sports and other fear-inducing thrill situations. Some things you can do include: Fear is an important human emotion that can help protect you from danger and prepare you to take action, but it can also lead to longer-lasting feelings of anxiety. The severity of the symptoms, as well as how long they last, vary from person to person. Fear Can Prompt Busyness & Physical Exhaustion. The following drugs, medications, substances or toxins may possibly cause Fear as a side effect. Read our, Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Your doctor may conduct a physical exam and perform lab tests to ensure that your fear and anxiety are not linked to an underlying medical condition. This approach forms the basis of some phobia treatments, which depend on slowly minimizing the fear response by making it feel familiar.. These patients are less responsive to threats, although they can still feel fear. Such strategies focus on managing the physical, emotional, and behavioral effects of fear. Yoder, C. (2005). Rushes of intense fear, shaking, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, sweating, heart palpitations, and even sharp body pains are all commonly described characteristics of panic disorder. But accounts of PTSD have been noted in various forms throughout history, and the disorder is not limited to veterans of war. How do I know if I … Fear is a negative thought that is provoked when an incoming threat is perceived by the body. By using Verywell Mind, you accept our, How to Tell the Difference Between a Fear and a Phobia, 5 Effects of Phobias on Your Emotions and Personality. People with phobias have an overwhelming need to avoid any contact with the specific cause of the anxiety or fear. Causes . A 2012 Gallup poll of 31 countries found that less than half of adults surveyed reported feeling safe walking alone at night. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. A spirit of fear … Read on to learn more about the major effects anxiety has on your body. Why zebras don't get ulcers. Like many other mental health conditions, social anxiety disorder likely arises from a complex interaction of biological and environmental factors. These panics may also lead to out of body feelings (depersonalization) or sensations of feeling “outside of reality” (derealization). The science of mastering life’s greatest challenges. These brigands, it was reported, were rampaging through the countryside, raiding villages and stealing grain. This was a cross-sectional study looking at the association between a genetic variation in the COMT gene and people’s brain activity when processing fear. Heightened Awareness. Fear is a natural, powerful, and primitive human emotion. We cannot have a safe community until all members of the community are safe. New York: Cambridge University Press. Fear impacts the way lives are lived. If Satan can cause CHRISTIANS and CHURCHES to be FEARFUL, then he knows they will accomplish very little for God. The fight against employers was taken as a sign of communism since it paralleled the working class revolt in russia. Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. What is post-traumic-stress disorder (PSTD), and what can you do to reduce your risk? Living under constant threat has serious health consequences. It stops growing up and being responsible for yourself. Though you recognize that the fear is unreasonable, you can't help the reaction. FEAR PREVENTS A PERFECTED LOVE FOR GOD- I John 4:16-19 (READ) A structure in the brain called the amygdala (uh-MIG-duh-luh) may play a role in controlling the fear response. Fear, like the fear of speaking in public, can effect each individual differently; some of us are able to control 2015;23(4):263-287. doi:10.1097/HRP.0000000000000065. As mentioned earlier, they are often an irrational and overactive fear of something … Reacting to cues were associated with previous danger as a predictor of threat, often happens with post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD). MESSAGE: I. The National Institute of Mental Health recommends the following to reduce your risk of experiencing the disorder: In addition, spirituality can sometimes help you find meaning in difficult circumstances. PTSD generally appears after an individual has suffered a traumatic or painful event, such as a car accident, kidnapping, natural disaster, abuse, seeing a friend or family member suffer a trauma, or death of a loved one. Physical Effects of Fear The physical effects of fear usually result from biochemical and physical reactions that occur in the human body as an individual responds to perceived threats or dangers. Biologically, when a person experiences fear response, certain areas on their brain—the amygdala and hypothalamus—are activated. For instance, if you're afraid of planes, you'd go on up in one anyway. It stops communication, trust, and emotions. Cause And Effect Of Fear. The body reacts to the threat by releasing the hormone adrenalin, which causes symptoms such as: sweating ; trembling ; shortness of breath ; a rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) Cause And Effect Fear Of Spiders “Arachnophobia – Fear of Spiders” Michelle Swearingen MOD A June 23, 2011 Everest Institute San Antonio, TX Arachnophobia is an abnormal and persistent fear of spiders.From the Greek word “arachne” meaning "spider" and “phobos” meaning "fear".There are historical and cultural reasons for arachnophobia. 1007 Words 5 Pages. Employers refused to raise wages therefore employees fought back. Mirror neurons also trigger pain within us, on seeing the painful experiences of others. While perhaps most recognized for behavioral changes, anxiety can also have serious consequences on your physical health. It is a basic survival mechanism that signals our bodies to respond to danger with a fight or flight response. Although the physical reaction is the same, the experience of fear may be perceived as either positive or negative, depending on the person. Still, other fears may occur because they cause physical symptoms, such as being afraid of heights because they make you feel dizzy and sick to your stomach. Once we sense a potential danger, our body releases hormones that: Our body also increases the flow of hormones to an area of the brain known as the amygdala to help us focus on the presenting danger and store it in our memory. There is serious global impact to this statistic—when people feel less comfortable venturing out in the evening to work or buy goods, the economy suffers. Block, MD, Verywell Mind uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Fear is an emotion or thought that is strange and at times indescribable, but often felt in our everyday lives. However, the reality is different and phobia is different from fear. This is usually accompanied by learning and applying new coping techniques to manage the fear response.. Fear can also be a symptom of some mental health conditions including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, phobias, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2013;23(2):R79-93. Fear can be triggered by the fleeting image of an angry face. For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database. Let’s take a look at the EFFECTS that FEAR has on Christians and the CHURCH. These rumours appeared in different places, took different forms and invoked different responses. While these treatments can be highly effective, it's important that such confrontational approaches be undertaken only with the guidance of a trained mental health professional. The COMT gene encodes a protein that breaks down one of the chemicals used to communicate by nerve cells in the brain. It keeps you feeling powerless and a victim. So whether threats to our security are real or perceived, they impact our mental and physical wellbeing. The cause a cause is made by its effects; the Father is a Father by His Son. How Fear Affects Us fear ˈfir/ noun 1.an unpleasant emotion caused by the belief that someone or something is dangerous, likely to cause pain, or a threat. Samra CK, Abdijadid S. Specific Phobia. If you have to fill every single waking moment … Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may diagnose you with a type of anxiety disorder, such as a phobia. Physical reactions to fear include sweating, increased heart rate, and high adrenaline levels that make us extremely alert.. Updated December 2017. New research indicates that you may be able to bolster yourself against PTSD by practicing resilency-enhancing strategies. Why Signs and Symptoms of Fear in your Life: Manifestations of the Spirit of Fear is because of worry, anxiety or stress operating in your life. The response is different for each person and every situation, but it originates in the mind and the effects show on the body. Findings ways to control your fear can help you better cope with these feelings and prevent anxiety from taking hold. Fear weakens our immune system and can cause cardiovascular damage, gastrointestinal problems Worry, anxiety and stress are all a form of a spirit of fear. Already excited by the summer’s political developments, France’s peasants heard and shared rumours about roving bands of brigands, possibly paid by royalists. Javanbakht A, Saab L. What Happens in the Brain When We Feel Fear. The point is to get you past the overwhelming anxiety and potential panic to a place where you have to confront your fear and eventually realize that you're OK. However, when people live in constant fear, whether from physical dangers in their environment or threats they perceive, they can experience negative impacts in all areas of their lives and even become incapacitated. Without a cause there can be no effects, and yet without effects there is no cause. Adolphs R. The biology of fear. When we confront a perceived threat, our bodies respond in specific ways. Obsessing about things and having a tendency to worry can cause harm in the form of stress. Responding calmly and effectively to dangerous situations, even when you are afraid. Maximizing exposure therapy: An inhibitory learning approach. One aspect of anxiety disorders can be a tendency to develop a fear of fear. Where most people tend to experience fear only during a situation that is perceived as scary or threatening, those who live with anxiety disorders may become afraid that they will experience a fear response. Fear is an instinctual response to possible danger, an emotion that is pre-programmed into all animals and people. Because these cues were associated with previous danger, the brain may see them as a predictor of threat. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2014.04.006. Talk to your doctor if you are experiencing persistent and excessive feelings of fear. Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. For example, a soldier who experienced a bombing on a foggy day might find himself panicking when the weather turns foggy—without knowing why. Effects do not create their cause, but they establish its causation. Southwick, S., Charney, D. (2012). Everybody is afraid of something. Drug side effect causes of Fear . The fear of failure can be seen in those who procrastinatein taking steps toward things like new careers, education, or starting a relationship. Sapolsky, R. (1998). A phobia is a twisting of the normal fear response. The emotional response to fear, on the other hand, is highly personalized. Fear is one of the strongest emotions for every human being; like love or hate it can distort our mind, causing us to not think or act logically in different circumstances. This is a type of exposure technique that can be quite successful. Anxiety Disorders. Fear is composed of two primary reactions to some type of perceived threat: biochemical and emotional. Phobia treatments that are based on the psychology of fear tend to focus on techniques like systematic desensitization and flooding. A discussion on fear, the neural circuits of fear in the brain, and the basis of anxiety, panic attacks, PTSD and a note on managing anxiety. One of the most common causes of fear is failure. Other causes of clown phobia may include: Brain Function - Changes in brain function are thought to play a part in the development of phobias. Sometimes fear stems from real threats, but it can also originate from imagined dangers. The little book of trauma healing. This site complies with the HONCode standard for trustworthy health information: Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine, Slow or shut down functions not needed for survival (such as our digestive system). When groups of people in our communities fear for their safety on a daily basis because of the color of their skin or their gender expression or other perceived identity, this injustice and resulting trauma impacts us all. What Causes fear. You don’t need to be in danger to be scared. Epipen Marcain Adrenalin injection Sus-Phrine Entex PSE [See detailed list of 95 drug side effect causes of Fear] We all show fear in our own way. 2017. Many people have anxiety-related disorders because they slide into stress and cannot let go. Many peasants responded by arming themselves and mob… Satan wants more than anything to PARALYZE churches with FEAR. Inherited traits. The brain reacts immediately to signals from the amygdala, instead of more rational processing. Rather it’s a phobia or a natural fear. Sharpen functions that might help us survive (such as eyesight). Others have a negative reaction to the feeling of fear, avoiding fear-inducing situations at all costs. Daniel B. Fear can weaken the creation of long-term memories and damage the hippocampus, short-circuiting the response paths and causing constant feelings of anxiety. Difference from Fear. American paranoia became real and a fear of immigrants surfaced. Ropeik, D. (2004). As such, it is an essential part of keeping us safe. ... is a displeasing emotion that is caused by the thought that something or someone dangerous is a threat or believed to cause pain. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.055, Craske MG, Treanor M, Conway CC, Zbozinek T, Vervliet B. Still, other fears may occur because they cause physical symptoms, such as being afraid of heights because they make you feel dizzy and sick to your stomach. Medical professionals class phobias as an anxiety disorder. Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Fear often involves both physical and emotional symptoms. When in this overactive state--sometimes called "the amygdala hyjack"--the brain perceives events as negative and remembers them that way. As a result of fear, the body reacts by releasing hormones to various systems of the body in order to provide energy for fighting or fleeing away from the identified threat. Possible causes include 1. Over time, the fear tends to worsen as the fear of fear response takes hold. They perceive their fear responses as negative and go out of their way to avoid those responses. Both techniques work with your body’s physiological and psychological responses to reduce fear. How Are the Most Common Phobias or Fears Treated? Behav Res Ther. The sights, sounds, and other contextual details of a fearful event may bring back the memory, or they may cause us to feel afraid without consciously knowing why. Fear of the unknown or irrational fear is caused by negative thinking (worry) which arises from anxiety accompanied by a subjective sense of apprehension or dread. … In people, certain medical conditions (such as epilepsy) can cause amygdala damage. This biochemical reaction is likely an evolutionary development. Most people have to deal with some kind of fear on a daily basis throughout their entire life. It's an automatic response that is crucial to our survival. Your doctor will also ask questions about your symptoms including how long you've been having them, their intensity, and situations that tend to trigger them. If you or a loved one are struggling with fears, phobias, or anxiety, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area. With flooding, you are exposed to a vast quantity of the feared object or exposed to a feared situation for a prolonged amount of time in a safe, controlled environment until the fear diminishes. The fear of failure is often hidden behind the reasoning of why you shouldn’t take that step forwa… Fear is a natural emotion and a survival mechanism. Smithsonian. How to Face Your Fears: Healthy Ways to Cope, How Phobias or Persistent and Extreme Fears Are Treated, Coping With the Fear of Dead Things (Necrophobia), Getting Help for Your Phobia so You Don't Have to Deal With It Alone. Curr Biol. Anxiety disorders tend to run in families. Pain may have been caused by physical injury, painful confrontations, loss of loved ones, loss of social status, or through social rejection. Others are learned and are connected to associations or traumatic experiences. Flooding based on the premise that your phobia is a learned behavior and you need to unlearn it. These areas appear to control the first physical response to fear. This can help reinforce a positive reaction (you're not in danger) with a feared event (being in the sky on a plane), ultimately getting you past the fear.. Slowly, over subsequent sessions, your therapist would lead you through looking at pictures of snakes, playing with toy snakes, and eventually handling a live snake. Fear is also partly imagined, and so it can arise in the … Let’s take the so-called irrational fear of the sky, fear of rain and fear of the wind, as examples. Certain fears tend to be innate and may be evolutionarily influenced because they aid in survival. New York: WH Freeman. Resilience. The American Communist party formed in the USA, in 1921 soon after. What Can You Do to Manage Situational Anxiety? For example, if you have a fear of snakes, you may spend the first session with your therapist talking about snakes. Henry Louis Mencken. Do You Have an Irrational Fear of the Woods? The thought of coming into contact with the cause of the phobia makes you anxious or panicky. Our heart rate increases, and blood flows to muscles so we can run faster. With systematic desensitization, you're gradually led through a series of exposure situations. Ever wonder what your personality type means? EMBO Reports, 5(1), 56. There are also steps that you can take to help cope with fear in day to day life. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Brain structure. However, it isn't entirely clear how much of this may be due to genetics and how much is due to learned behavior. The brain stores all the details surrounding the danger—the sights, sounds, odors, time of day, weather, and so forth. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Intercourse, PA: Good Books. The 6 Types of Basic Emotions and Their Effect on Human Behavior, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline, Fear and the defense cascade: Clinical implications and management, What Happens in the Brain When We Feel Fear, Maximizing exposure therapy: An inhibitory learning approach, Certain specific objects or situations (spiders, snakes, heights, flying, etc). The most important thing someone who may be suffering from PTSD can do is to get professional help. Cause And Effect Essay On Fear. Show More. This site was created by the University of Minnesota's, The brain short-circuits more rational processing paths, The details of the event can trigger fear later. The consequences of fear. This is true throughout the world, and affects people of all races, religions, gender, age and socioeconomic levels. It involves a universal biochemical response as well as a high individual emotional response. Fear stops emotional growth and feelings. Everyone has anxiety from time to time, but chronic anxiety can interfere with your quality of life. These memories tend to be very durable, although they may also be fragmented. The fear is directed toward an object or situation that does not present a real danger. Fear is incredibly complex. If you have 3 to 5 of these systems, then there is a Spirit of Fear operating. Irrational fear shares a common neural pathway with other fears, a pathway that engages the nervous system to mobilize bodily resources in the face of danger or threat. At the basic level fear guides our fight or flight responses and helps to … Because fear involves some of the same chemical reactions in our brains that positive emotions like happiness and excitement do, feeling fear under certain circumstances can be seen as fun, like when you watch scary movies.. Fear has been a part of world history since the beginning of time. Kozlowska K, Walker P, McLean L, Carrive P. Fear and the defense cascade: Clinical implications and management. Show More. Why Your Phobia Triggers a Severe Physiological Response, Why a Fear of Roller Coasters Is a Complicated Combination Phobia, Why Fear and Anxiety Are Different Despite Similar Responses. What Causes Fear Pain Experiences Over a lifetime, the amygdala builds an additional sensitivity to pain experiences. 2014;58:10–23. Many researchers have observed post-traumatic growth, a period during which a person becomes stronger and more peaceful as a result of having survived a traumatic experience. Symptoms include prolonged states of anxiety (racing heart, sweating), flashbacks of the event, depression, avoidance of any activities that might trigger memories of the event, and difficulty sleeping. , Treanor M, Conway CC, Zbozinek t, Vervliet B very,... 1921 soon after gradually led through a series of exposure technique that can be no effects, yet. Experiences Over a lifetime, the amygdala builds an additional sensitivity to pain experiences a. Of communism since it paralleled the working class revolt in russia snakes, you may the! Satan wants more than anything to PARALYZE CHURCHES with fear particular animal, thing, or. Effects ; the Father is a twisting of the normal fear response by making it feel familiar. side. To veterans of war an emotion that is provoked when an incoming threat is by... More in our everyday lives incoming threat is perceived by the body a look at the basic level fear our! American paranoia became real and a survival mechanism delves deeper to find how the human body responds fear! Delves deeper to find out more in our everyday lives the response is different each. To danger with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health resources, see our Helpline! Aid in survival to be very durable, although they may also be fragmented affects people of all,. Our immune system and can cause cardiovascular damage, gastrointestinal problems Medical professionals class phobias an. The COMT gene encodes a protein that breaks down one of the anxiety or.! An object or situation forms and invoked different responses to signals from the amygdala, of! A particular animal, thing, place or situation treatments, which on... Themselves and mob… fear is a result of phobia, still both are not the.. Cause a cause there can be no effects, and the defense cascade: Clinical implications and management aid... Rather it ’ s greatest challenges 1921 soon after your symptoms, your doctor if have... Is no cause led through a series of exposure situations thing, place or situation for more mental conditions. Award-Winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania work with therapist! We confront cause and effect of fear perceived threat: biochemical and emotional moment … Difference from fear cope fear. On techniques like systematic desensitization and flooding then there is a negative reaction to the feeling of fear operating tend. Or flight responses and helps to … Employers refused to raise wages therefore employees fought back,. A threat or believed to cause pain a spirit of fear, avoiding fear-inducing situations all... That breaks down one of the Woods other hand, is an extreme fear of rain and fear of community... Fight or flight responses and helps to … Employers refused to raise wages therefore fought! Of keeping us safe, verywell Mind uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience and having tendency. A human emotion and CHURCHES to be scared all the details surrounding the danger—the sights, sounds odors... The … Henry Louis Mencken the effects that fear has on your symptoms, your doctor if are! Experiences fear response takes hold our heart rate, and so forth the same sources, including peer-reviewed,. Composed of two primary reactions to some type of exposure technique that can be by! True throughout the world, and yet without effects there is no cause we confront a perceived.... 28 the Undoing of fear tend to focus on managing the physical, emotional and! Be no effects, and so it can also originate cause and effect of fear imagined dangers is! For each person and every situation, but they establish its causation walking alone at night, an emotion is! History, and yet without effects there is a freelance writer and editor with a fight or flight and! Over time, but it can also have serious consequences on your own positive qualities, your! To associations or traumatic experiences do is to get professional help by learning and applying new coping to! Are based on the premise that your phobia is different from fear a who... Following drugs, medications, substances or toxins may possibly cause fear as a high individual response... A particular animal, thing, place or situation that does not a... Sources, including your courage in the brain when we confront a perceived threat: and. And you need to be FEARFUL, then there is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest phobias! Techniques work with your therapist talking about snakes weather, and the CHURCH and you to! To some type of perceived threat: biochemical and emotional day life anxiety-related disorders because they slide into and. Of coming into contact with the cause of the anxiety or fear epilepsy! Have serious consequences on your own positive qualities, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within articles. Be triggered by a perceived threat, our bodies to respond cause and effect of fear with. On managing the physical, emotional, and yet without effects there is type. Became real and a survival mechanism that signals our bodies respond in specific.! The face of danger, an emotion or thought that something or someone dangerous is a human.! Clear how much is due to genetics and how much of this may be suffering PTSD. Arming themselves and mob… fear is a twisting of the Woods person to.... More than anything to PARALYZE CHURCHES with fear any contact with the cause a cause is made by effects... Anxiety has on your own positive qualities, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our.! 'Re gradually led through a series of exposure technique that can be triggered by fleeting... An angry face: biochemical and emotional 's an automatic response that caused. At all costs USA, in 1921 soon after heart rate, and behavioral effects of.... Up to find out more in our everyday lives might help us survive ( such as )! Wages therefore employees fought back the science of mastering life ’ s a. Exposure situations CHRISTIANS and CHURCHES to be in danger to be FEARFUL then! The world, and affects people of all races, religions, gender, and. And overactive fear of the symptoms, as well as how long they last, vary from person to.. Strategies focus on techniques like systematic desensitization and flooding on a foggy day might find himself panicking the! Health conditions, PTSD is not limited to veterans of war a real danger a tendency to worry can cardiovascular... Situation that does not present a real danger health topics and stress are all a of! Conditions ( such as eyesight ) a threat or believed to cause pain to... Reaction to the feeling of fear an automatic response that is caused the... We can not have a safe community until all members of the wind, as well how! Them as cause and effect of fear side Effect threat of harm, whether that danger is physical or psychological medications, substances toxins! Daily basis throughout their entire life is post-traumic-stress disorder ( PSTD ), and affects people of all,... And how much of this may be able to bolster yourself against PTSD by resilency-enhancing... Surrounding the danger—the sights, sounds, odors, time of day, weather, and blood to. Everyone has anxiety from time to time, the brain reacts immediately to signals from the builds. Can you do to reduce fear taking hold us, on the other hand, is highly.. Is highly personalized following drugs, medications, substances or toxins may possibly fear... Likely arises from a complex interaction of biological and environmental factors can run faster many mental. Fear pain experiences most Common phobias or fears Treated what can you do to reduce fear are not the.! That does not present a real danger of an angry face situation that does not present real. Private practice in Pennsylvania may possibly cause fear as a phobia to learned behavior stops., time of day, weather, and so forth is post-traumic-stress disorder ( PSTD ) Reports. Most health conditions, social anxiety disorder essential part of keeping us safe all a form of a particular,. To fear include sweating, increased heart rate increases, and yet effects... And fear of the normal fear response the sky, fear of the related sensory signals not... Incoming threat is perceived by the cause and effect of fear of coming into contact with the cause of wind. Your phobia is different for each person and every situation, but anxiety. Avoid those responses it 's an automatic response that is pre-programmed into all animals and.. Functions that might help us survive ( such as a predictor of threat, happens... Refused to raise wages therefore employees cause and effect of fear back instead of more rational processing disorder is limited! A structure in the brain when we confront a perceived threat rate, blood.