[114] Melchor Fernández, Juan León Ferragut and Joaquín Grigera supported his vote, among others. May 25: Monday: First Government Day (Día de la Revolución de Mayo) June 15: Monday: Paso a la ... Below is a list of recent news and updates related to Argentina public holidays, national holidays, government holidays and bank holidays (note that this newsfeed is delayed by 30 days). Known as Día de la Revolución de Mayo, this holiday is always celebrated on May 25th, regardless of the day of the week. [77] Most of the population was uneasy; there was high activity at the barracks and in the Plaza, and most shops were closed. [40], After the British invasion of 1806, Santiago de Liniers successfully reconquered Buenos Aires. [183], According to historian Félix Luna's Breve historia de los Argentinos (Spanish: Brief history of the Argentines), one of the most important societal consequences of the May Revolution was the shift in the way the people and its rulers related. [95] Saavedra was at the barracks at that moment, concerned about the demonstration. It is celebrated as Argentina’s independence day but is actually celebrating a series of events that lead up to the May Revolution and ultimately Argentina’s independence from Spain. Argentina National Day 2015. [25] This was in part because the clergy controlled the entire educational system in Spanish America, which led the population to hold the same conservative ideas and follow the same customs as in Spain. [212] Before the declaration of independence of 1816, the supreme directors considered other options, such as to negotiate with Spain or become a British protectorate. National Day/May 1810 Revolution. [75] Martín Rodríguez proposed to overthrow the Viceroy by force, but Castelli and Saavedra rejected this idea and proposed the convening of an open cabildo. Year. Criollos felt that soon any pretext would be enough to lead to the outbreak of revolution. [88] They carried a portrait of Ferdinand VII and the lapels of their jackets bore a white ribbon that symbolized criollo–Spanish unity. [114] Huidobro felt that the Cabildo should be in government, as it was the representative of the people. There was no aid from Spain during either invasion. [21] Most local authorities allowed this smuggling as a lesser evil, even though it was illegal, and it occasionally equalled in volume the legal commerce with Spain. Two of the most notable are the Avenida de Mayo and the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires, near the location of the Cabildo. [153] The demonstration overran the Cabildo again, and reached the hall of deliberations. [210] The purpose of such a deception would have been to gain time to strengthen the position of the patriotic cause and avoid reactions that may have led to a counter-revolution, by making it appear that monarchical authority was still respected and that no revolution had taken place. [76] After a short private discussion with Caspe, Cisneros reluctantly gave his consent. [92] This scene lifted the revolutionaries' spirits and led to frenzied applause. [66] Romero warned Cisneros against spreading news that might be considered subversive. [197] The newer authors would differ about the relative weight of the causes of the May Revolution and about whose intervention in the events was more decisive, but the main views expressed by Mitre were kept,[198] such as to consider the revolution to be the birth of modern Argentina[199] and an unavoidable event. [177], The Primera Junta increased in size when it incorporated the representatives sent by the provinces. Here there are no conquerors or conquered; here there are only Spaniards. [18][19] The Spanish trade routes favored the ports of Mexico and Lima, to the detriment of Buenos Aires. [71] The Council of Regency of Cadiz was not seen as a successor of the Spanish resistance but as an attempt to restore absolutism in Spain. Argentina National Day 2017 Happy National Day Argentina! For people in South America, to stay as a part of the Spanish Empire, but with a new relationship with the mother country, was no longer a feasible option: the only remaining options at this point were to return to absolutism or to adopt independentism.[219]. The Spaniards of America are trying to save theirs. "[119] At the time of the vote, Castelli's position coincided with that of Saavedra. [1], However, the spread of such ideas was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as was the sale of related books or their unauthorized possession. Though … [120][123], The debate took all day, and the votes were counted very late that night. [186] Over time, popular sovereignty would give way to the idea of majority rule. Here there are no conquerors or conquered; here there are only Spaniards. The Spaniards of Spain have lost their land. [88][102] All noteworthy religious and civilian people were present, as well as militia commanders and many prominent residents. This led to dramatic increases in the productive capabilities of Britain,[9] and created a need for new markets to sell its products. The highest authority would be transferred temporarily to the Cabildo until the appointment of a governing junta. The stability of Cisneros in power, albeit in an office other than Viceroy, was seen as an insult to the will of the open cabildo. [41] This was an unprecedented action, the first time that a Spanish viceroy was deposed by local government institutions, and not by the King of Spain himself;[43] King Charles IV ratified the appointment at a later time. [92], After the play, the revolutionaries returned to Peña's house. Historians today debate whether the revolutionaries were truly loyal to the Spanish crown or whether the declaration of fidelity to the king was a necessary ruse to conceal the true objective—to achieve independence—from a population that was not yet ready to accept such a radical change. [95] He thought the violence should be stopped and that radical measures such as the assassination of Cisneros should be prevented, but he also thought that the troops would mutiny if the demonstrations were suppressed. [18][31], The Portuguese royal family left Europe and settled in colonial Brazil in 1808, after their escape from the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal. [106] He feared that, no matter which party prevailed in the open cabildo, it would take revenge against the other, the Mutiny of Álzaga being a recent precedent. [36], Martín de Álzaga began a mutiny to remove Liniers. [206][207][208][209] The Primera Junta did not pledge allegiance to the Council of Regency, which was still in operation, and in 1810 it still seemed unlikely that Napoleon would be defeated and Ferdinand returned to the throne (which finally happened on December 11, 1813, with the Treaty of Valençay). [89] He rejected the claim of sovereignty of Cadiz over the Americas,[88] and concluded that the local armies wanted to look after themselves, rather than following the fate of Spain. [7] Books from the United States found their way into the Spanish colonies through Caracas, owing to the proximity of Venezuela to the United States and the West Indies. The revolution of May 1810 in Buenos Aires, intended to win the independence of Argentina from Spain, also had the consequence of emancipating the province of Buenos Aires from Argentina or, rather, of imposing the authority of this province upon the whole nation emancipated from Spain. In other cities similar events are sponsored by the government, with dance, music, and art exhibitions as Argentineans celebrate the birth of their country. [161], Buenos Aires endured the whole Spanish American Wars of independence without being reconquered by royalist armies or successful royalist counter-revolutions. [188] The brief existence of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, which had lasted barely 38 years, impeded the consolidation of a patriotic feeling and failed to bring a sense of community to all of the population. [224] When San Martín talked about enemies, he called them "royalists" or "Goths", but never "Spanish". [79], The Viceroy, trying to calm the criollos, gave his own version of events in a proclamation. [1][2] Between 1775 and 1783, the American patriots of the Thirteen Colonies waged the American Revolutionary War against both the local loyalists and the Kingdom of Great Britain, eventually establishing a popular government in the place of the British monarchy. [176], The Captaincy General of Chile followed a process analogous to that of the May Revolution, and elected a Government Junta that inaugurated the brief period known as Patria Vieja. [82], During the night of May 19 there were further discussions at Rodríguez Peña's house. [142] Because of delays in issuing an official resolution, the crowd became agitated, clamoring that "the people want to know what is going on!". 25 de Mayo: National Day. It wasn’t until July 9, 1816 that true independence from Spain was declared, following the example of other nations like Peru, Uruguay, and Paraguay. The Andes provided an effective natural barrier between the Argentine revolutionaries and Chile, so there was no military confrontation between them until the Crossing of the Andes, led by José de San Martín in 1817, a campaign that resulted in the defeat of the Chilean royalists. [61] Murillo tried to defend La Paz, but his 800 militiamen were completely outnumbered by the more than 5,000 soldiers sent from Lima. The fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the idea that it would be a crime to end one's allegiance to the parent state. More specifically, this day marks the creation of the First Junta, a local authority that took over governance of Buenos Aires from the Spanish Viceroyalty on this date in 1810. [102] The principle of retroversion of the sovereignty to the people stated that, in the absence of the legitimate monarch, power returned to the people; they were entitled to form a new government. [51] The leaders of the plot, with the exception of Moreno,[52] were exiled to Carmen de Patagones. [94] Domingo French, the mail carrier of the city, and Antonio Beruti, an employee of the treasury, led the rioters. [84] He argued that if the Viceroy was deposed in that way, it would constitute a rebellion, which would turn the revolutionaries into outlaws. [117] The rhetorical device of the "elder sister", comparable to negotiorum gestio,[118] makes an analogy between the relationship of Buenos Aires and other cities of the viceroyalty with a sibling relationship. The Primera Junta was formed by representatives from Buenos Aires, who sent word to other cities in the viceroyalty and asked them to send deputies. [97] The members of the Cabildo tried to convince him to give his support, but he left. [138] He said that "everyone without exception" demanded the removal of Cisneros. [138], That night, Castelli and Saavedra informed Cisneros of their resignation from the newly formed Junta. [41] He had escaped to Cordoba with the public treasury while the battle was still in progress. History of National Day in Argentina. [232], The date, as well as a generic image of the Buenos Aires Cabildo, are used in different variants to honor the May Revolution. [70] The city of Seville had been invaded by French armies, which were already dominating most of the Iberian Peninsula. [95] The people in the Plaza did not believe that Cisneros would allow the open cabildo the next day. [162] Despite the importance of Liniers himself, and his prestige as a popular hero for his role when the British invaded, the population of Córdoba preferred to support the revolution. [228] Even if Spain was at war with France, the ideals of the French Revolution (liberty, equality and fraternity) were still respected. [42] A law enacted in 1778 required the treasury to be moved to a safe location in the case of a foreign attack, but Sobremonte was still seen as a coward by the population. [72] Cisneros monitored the British ships and seized their newspapers to conceal the news, but a newspaper came into the hands of Belgrano and Castelli. [114] He based his speech on two key ideas: the government's lapsed legitimacy—he stated that the Supreme Central Junta was dissolved and had no rights to designate a Regency—and the principle of retroversion of sovereignty. National Day is a public holiday in Argentina. [74] When Cornelio Saavedra, head of the regiment of Patricians, was informed of this news, he decided that it was finally the ideal time to take action against Cisneros. [186] The new country of Argentina lacked an established concept of national identity capable to unite the population under a common idea of statehood. on Argentina Festively Celebrates Its National Day, Truth and Justice Day Commemorated in Argentina, Uruguay celebrates Battle of Las Piedras Day, Argentina remembers the Death of San Martin. One of the speakers for the first position was the bishop of Buenos Aires, Benito Lue y Riega, leader of the local church, who said: Not only is there no reason to get rid of the Viceroy, but even if no part of Spain remained unsubdued, the Spaniards in America ought to take it back and resume command over it. This page contains the list of upcoming Argentina official public holidays, bank holidays, government holidays, regional public holidays, non-working national holidays and sectorial holidays from December 2020 to October 2021. [58] Cisneros rearmed the disbanded peninsular militias, and pardoned those responsible for the mutiny. [158] This wore the patience of the few who were still in the plaza in the rain. May 1: Labour Day: Día del Trabajador: International holiday: May 25: Day of the First … [83] They arranged that Belgrano and Saavedra would meet with Juan José de Lezica, the senior alcalde (municipal magistrate), while Castelli would meet with the procurator Julián de Leiva, to ask for their support. [204] Mitre, for example, referred to The Representation of the Landowners (an 1809 economic report by Mariano Moreno) and the role of the merchants to support the view that the May Revolution intended to obtain free trade and economic integration with Europe;[205] right-wing revisionists center around Saavedra and the social customs of the time to describe the revolution under conservative principles;[205] and left-wing revisionists use the example of Moreno, Castelli and the rioters led by French and Beruti to describe it as a radical revolution. 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